Google Scholar

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Citations

Google Scholar Citations

Google Scholar Citations provide a simple way for authors to keep track of citations to their articles. You can check who is citing your publications, graph citations over time, and compute several citation metrics. You can also make your profile public, so that it may appear in Google Scholar results when people search for your name, e.g., richard feynman.

Best of all, it's quick to set up and simple to maintain - even if you have written hundreds of articles, and even if your name is shared by several different scholars. You can add groups of related articles, not just one article at a time; and your citation metrics are computed and updated automatically as Google Scholar finds new citations to your work on the web. You can choose to have your list of articles updated automatically or review the updates yourself, or to manually update your articles at any time.

Get started with Google Scholar Citations

Setting up your profile

How do I create my author profile?

You can sign up for a Google Scholar Citations profile. It's quick and free.

  1. First, sign to your Google account, or create one if you don't yet have one. We recommend that you use a personal account, not an account at your employer, so that you can keep your profile for as long as you wish.
  2. Once you've signed in to your Google account, the Citations sign up form will ask you to confirm the spelling of your name, and to enter your affiliation, interests, etc. We recommend that you also enter your university email address which would make your profile eligible for inclusion in Google Scholar search results.
  3. On the next page, you'll see groups of articles written by people with names similar to yours. Click "Add all articles" next to each article group that is yours, or "See all articles" to add specific articles from that group. If you don't see your articles in these groups, click "Search articles" to do a regular Google Scholar search, and then add your articles one at a time. Feel free to do as many searches as you like.
  4. Once you're done with adding articles, it will ask you what to do when the article data changes in Google Scholar. You can either have the updates applied to your profile automatically, or you can choose to review them beforehand. In either case, you can always go to your profile and make changes by hand.
  5. Finally, you will see your profile. This is a good time to add a few finishing touches - upload your professional looking photo, visit your university email inbox and click on the verification link, double check the list of articles, and, once you're completely satisfied, make your profile public. Voila - it's now eligible to appear in Google Scholar when someone searches for your name!
Some of my articles are not in my profile. How do I add missing articles?

Select the "Add" option from the Actions menu. Search for your articles using titles, keywords, or your name.

To add one article at a time, click "Search articles" and then "Add article" next to the article you wish to add. Your citation metrics will update immediately to account for the articles you added.

If your search doesn't find the right article, click "Add article manually". Then, type in the title, the authors, etc., and click "Save". Keep in mind that citations to manually added articles may not appear in your profile for a few days.

To add a group of related articles, click "Search article groups" and then "Add all articles" next to the group you wish to add. If you have written articles under different names, with multiple groups of colleagues, or in different journals, you may need to select multiple groups. Your citation metrics will update immediately to account for the groups you added.

Some of the articles in my profile aren't mine. Why are they included in my profile?

Alas, we have no way of knowing which articles are really yours. Author names are often abbreviated and different people sometimes share similar names. We use a statistical model to try to tell different authors apart but such automatic processes are not always accurate. The best way to fix this is to look through the articles in your profile and remove the ones that were written by others.

How do I remove articles that aren't mine?

Select the articles you would like to remove. Then, choose the "Delete" option from the Actions menu.

I deleted one of the articles in my profile by mistake. How do I fix this?

Deleted articles are moved to the Trash. To view articles in the Trash, select the "View Trash" option from the Actions menu. To restore an article from the Trash, select the article and click the "Restore" button.

The description of one of my articles isn't correct. How do I fix it?

Click the title of the article and then click the "Edit" button. When you finish your changes, click the "Save" button.

If you've made substantial changes to the article, please keep the following in mind.

  • The list of "Scholar articles" at the bottom of the page may no longer match the article you've edited. We recommend that you review this list and "unmerge" the Scholar articles that no longer correspond to your article. Scholar articles affect the computation of your "Cited by" counts and citation metrics.
  • As with manual additions of articles, it may take several days for all citations to the edited article to be collected in your profile. You can speed up the process by adding the appropriate article from Google Scholar and then merging it with your version; then, your citation metrics will update right away.
  • It's possible that the article you've edited was already in your profile as a separate record. We recommend that you merge duplicate records - click the "Title/Author" column header to sort your articles by title, select the checkboxes next to the duplicate entries, which should now be adjacent, and then select the "Merge" option from the Actions menu.
My profile shows the same article twice. How do I fix this?

Select both versions of the article. Next, choose the "Merge" option from the Actions menu. You will then see both citations for the article listed. Click "Select" next to the best citation to the article (you can edit it later if you wish). This will merge the two versions. Your citation counts and citation metrics will automatically update to count the versions you've merged as a single article, not two different articles.

I merged a version with 27 citations with the one with 4 citations. How come the merged article has 30 citations - shouldn't it be 31?

Nope, the "Cited by" count after the merge is the number of papers that cite the merged article. One of these probably cites both versions that you've merged, the 27+4=31 formula counts this citation twice. But if the count has dropped below 27... ugh, please do let us know.

Why is there a next to my article's "Cited by" count?

The indicates that the "Cited by" count includes citations that might not match this article. It is an estimate made automatically by a computer program. You can check these citations by clicking on the article's title and looking for "Scholar articles" with a next to their title.

Making your profile public

Will my profile be visible to others?

Your profile is private and visible only to you until and unless you make your profile public.

How do I make my profile public?

Click the "Edit" link next to "My profile is private" and select the "My profile is public" option.

How do I see what my profile will look like to others before I make it public?

Click the "Edit" link next to "My profile is private". Next, click "Preview public version".

How do I link to my public profile?

Click the "Link" link next to "My profile is public". That will show the Public URL for your profile which you can add to your homepage or email to your colleagues. Highlight it with the mouse and paste it wherever you wish.

I have changed my mind about making my profile public. How do I make it private again?

Click the "Edit" link next to "My profile is public". Select the "My profile is private" option.

My profile is already public. Is there anything else I need to do to make it available for inclusion in Google Scholar search results?

You also need to add a verified email address at your university or institution.

To be eligible for inclusion in Google Scholar search results, your profile needs to be public and needs to have a verified email address at your university (non-institutional email addresses, such as gmail.com, hotmail.com, aol.com, yahoo.com, qq.com, etc., are not suitable for this purpose). To add a verified email to your profile, click the "Edit" link next to "No verified email", add your email address at your institution and click "Save". We will send you an email message with a verification link. Once you click on this link, the email address will be marked verified. Your profile will now be eligible for inclusion in Google Scholar search results.

Rest assured, we will not display your email address on your public profile. Nor will we sell it, trade it, or use it to send you email unrelated to Google Scholar.

Exploring citations to your articles

How do I see the list of citations to one of my articles?

Click the "Cited by" number for the article.

How do I see the citation graph for one of my articles?

Click the title of the article.

How do I get notified about new citations to my articles?

Click the "Follow new citations" link in the right sidebar under the search box; then, verify your email address and click "Create alert". We'll then email you when newly published articles cite any of the works in your profile.

How do I get notified about new citations to a specific article?

Click the "Cited by" number for your article and then click the envelope icon in the left sidebar. Then we'll email you when newly published articles cite yours.

Why is the "Cited by" count for one of my articles crossed out?

Google Scholar considers this article the same as another article in your profile. We display the "Cited by" count next to both of the duplicates, but we only count them once in your citation metrics.

We recommend that you merge the duplicates - select both the articles and choose "Merge" from the "Actions" menu.

I like other citation metrics. Do you plan to add the g-index or the e-index? Or maybe average citations per article?

Probably not. We compute two versions, All and Recent, of three metrics - h-index, i10-index and the total number of citations. While there's no shortage of other reasonable metrics, the incremental usefulness of adding each number generally goes down, while the user confusion generally goes up.

The number of citations to one of my articles is too low. I know of several articles citing it that are not included in the list of citations. What I can do to help fix this?

Your "Cited by" counts come from the Google Scholar index. You can change the articles in your profile, but citations to them are computed and updated automatically as we update Google Scholar.

To change the "Cited by" counts in your profile, you would need to have them updated in Google Scholar. Google Scholar generally reflects the state of the web as it is currently visible to our search robots and to the majority of users. If some of the citations to your article are not included, chances are that the citing articles are not accessible to our search robots or are formatted in ways that make it difficult for our indexing algorithms to identify their bibliographic data or references.

To fix this, you'll need to identify the specific citing articles with indexing problems and work with the publisher of these articles to make the necessary changes (see our inclusion guidelines for details). For most publishers, it usually takes 6-9 months for the changes to be reflected in Google Scholar; for very large publishers, it can take much longer.

Updates to your profile

How do I make sure that my citation metrics and the graph of citations is kept up to date?

You don't need to do anything! Your citation metrics and citation graph will be automatically updated whenever Google Scholar is updated.

I would like my list of articles to be automatically updated. How can I do that?

Select the "Profile updates" option from the Actions menu. Choose the automatic updates setting and click "Update settings". Your profile will be automatically updated when Google Scholar is updated.

This setting only controls the updates to your list of articles. It does not control the updates to your "Cited by" counts and citation metrics - those are always updated to reflect the current state of the web.

I have opted for automated updates. However, a recent article that I have written has not been automatically added to my profile. How can I fix this?

To add a missing article to your profile, select the "Add" option from the Actions menu. Then, either search for the article or enter its bibliographic data by hand.

How do I stop automated updates to my profile?

Select the "Profile updates" option from the Actions menu. Choose the confirmation email setting and click "Update settings". When we identify suitable updates for your profile, we'll send you an email message so that you can review and apply the updates.

I have edited some of the articles in my profile. How do I keep the automated updates from overriding my changes?

You don't need to do anything. Automated updates will not make changes to an article that you have edited.

Reviewing updates to your profile

Why does the updates page say that one of my articles is a duplicate entry?

This happens when the Google Scholar search index changes, and it now considers this entry a duplicate of some other article in your profile. This could happen, e.g., if the publisher re-formats their papers or fixes a typo. We recommend that you accept this suggestion. You can, of course, choose to keep duplicate entries in your profile, but only one of them will be counted towards your citation metrics.

Why does the updates page say that one of my articles is not matched in Google Scholar?

This happens when the Google Scholar search index has changed, and we have been unable to match an article in your profile with the new index. Most of the time, this is because it was considered to be a duplicate of some other article in your profile, but we weren't able to determine which one. Occasionally, the article may have been removed from Google Scholar entirely, e.g., because it's no longer available on the web, or because articles that reference it have become unavailable to our search robots.

To check if the article is a duplicate, go to your profile, click the "Title/Author" header to sort by title, and look for the article in question. If the same article is indeed listed multiple times, you can safely accept the suggestion to delete the unmatched entry. However, if it isn't a duplicate entry, you can choose to keep it in your profile. Though, since it is not matched in Google Scholar, its "Cited by" count will be zero.

Note that your decision to keep an unmatched entry in your profile will not reinstate the entry in Google Scholar. See the inclusion guidelines for help on including your articles in Google Scholar.

General questions

I created my profile a while ago... where is it?

It's right here, and also under the button labeled "My Citations" in the upper right of Google Scholar pages. If you are not logged into your Google account, please login before you click on "My Citations". If you have multiple Google accounts, you will need to log into the account that you used to create your profile.

How do I export articles from my profile?

To export all articles from your profile, choose the "Export" option from the Actions menu. To export specific articles, select the desired articles and then choose the "Export" option. You can pick the format for the exported articles using the menu on the export page.

My colleague would like to use Google Scholar Citations. Can I invite her?

Absolutely! Fill in her name and email address in the form on the right sidebar of your profile, and click "Send invitation". She will then need to open her email and click the invitation link to set up her profile.

If you would like to add her to your list of co-authors, select the "Inviting co-author" checkbox when you send the invitation. Once she accepts your invitation and creates her profile, a link to it will appear in your list of co-authors.

How do I sort the articles in my profile by publication date?

Click the column header labeled "Year".

How do I add a link to my homepage to my profile?

Click the "Add homepage" link. Add the URL for your homepage and click "Save".

I found a bug! Where do I report it?

Err, sorry... The best way to fix it depends on whether the problem appears when you search Google Scholar, or only when you view your profile.

First, try to reproduce the problem in regular Google Scholar search results. E.g., search Google Scholar for the title of the article in question, or for your name. If your article is listed incorrectly there, or if you believe its "Cited by" count is off, then refer to the inclusion guidelines. Chances are that you need to talk to your publisher to have it corrected.

If, however, the problem is specific to your profile, and does not affect normal Google Scholar search results, then please do let us know the details.